Monday, 30 April 2018

Prevalence and Health Impact of Violence Among High School Youth in Vlora City

In recent years, researchers have focused attention on high school youth who are exposed to differents types of violence with serious lifelong consequences. The studies conducted in Albania show that many children suffer needlessly from abuse and neglect. The data related to this phenomenon which have such a high impact on the health and well being, made it necessary for me to evaluate the prevalence and health consequences of the violence on teenagers in the city of Vlora too, in order to develop programs and methods for the prevention and treatment of violence. This descriptive transversal study included 350 teens from 3 high schools in the city of Vlora, one public school and two non public ones randomly selected. A structured and self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. A p values ≤ 0,05 were accepted as statistically significant. The results showed that the prevalence of the violence on teenagers of Vlora district was 85.7%, with higher result in public schools than non public ones (p=0.0152<0.05). Males result to be more violated than female (p=0.0168). The highest percentage of the violated age was 15-16 years old with 63.3%. The physical violence was found to be present in 46.6% of the cases, psychological violence 20 %, sexual violence 16.7 %, verbale violence in 10%, economical violence 6.7 %. Psychological consequences dominated as health damage from the abuse. 65% of participants were not treated and only 5% had psychological support. The schools and government professionals should work on the awareness of the teens in order to acknowledge the violence, its forms and the wrong concepts of beating or hitting as educative. The health policies for the promotion, prevention and treatment of the violence whenever and where ever it happens.

The World Health Organization defines violence as the use of physical force or real threat power against oneself, against another person, or against a group or community, which either results in or has any chance of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, development disability, or deprivation. Thus, violent behavior, especially the use of physical violence, is a significant public health problem worldwide because it has serious personal and social consequences. Young victims are more prone to showing symptoms of depression and anxiety, engaging in unhealthy behaviours, such as smoking, alcohol and drug use, or displaying anti-social behaviours and suicidal thoughts. Previous research has shown a high prevalence of violent behavior through physical struggle. Pickett et al. reported that adolescent involvement in fighting in North America and Europe varied among countries, ranging from 37% to 69% for boys and 13% to 32% for girls. 

Youth violence is product of social, cultural, economic and biologic factors. This phenomenon happens in all the European countries. They are one of the causes of health imparity and social inequality, where the groups in disadvantage are in higher risks. Other studies concerning the behaviors of life evaluate as a contributing factor of violence the way parents and children relate, especially when they use violent communication and behavioral forms; when there is little parental control over their children’s school and social life; when adolescents evade from school, relegate their school tasks and have low school performance; when they stay out of the house for long periods and do not notify their parents about their whereabouts in their free time. 

Friday, 27 April 2018

Another Opioid Epidemic Downside: More Heart Infections


Here's yet another outcome of the U.S. opioid emergency: an ascent in genuine heart contaminations in a state hard-hit by the medication plague. Another investigation, done at West Virginia's biggest restorative focus, found that affirmations for endocarditis identified with medicate manhandle dramatically increased in the vicinity of 2008 and 2015. That parallels an expansion in sedate use in the state. Endocarditis is a perilous disease of the heart's inward coating and valves. One way you get it is through utilizing filthy needles to shoot heroin or other infusion drugs. 

In 2015, the specialists found, 66 individuals were admitted to their doctor's facility for endocarditis identified with tranquilize mishandle. That was up from 26 cases in 2008. "Sixty-six cases won't not seem like a major number," said lead analyst Dr. Check Bates. "In any case, these patients are sick, and can invest a long time to a very long time in the healing facility." Bates is executive of cardiovascular research progression at Charleston Area Medical Center in West Virginia - a state intensely influenced by the national opioid scourge. Frequently, the medication mishandle refered to in patients' records was "blended." That is the way the doctor's facility codes opioids - which incorporate solution painkillers like Vicodin (hydrocodone) and OxyContin (oxycodone), and unlawful medications like heroin and illegally made fentanyl, Bates clarified. 

Endocarditis is for the most part treated with intravenous anti-infection agents for two to a month and a half, as per the U.S. National Institutes of Health. Now and again, surgery is additionally expected to repair harmed heart valves, or to help clear the contamination. As indicated by the U.S. Places for Disease Control and Prevention, about 64,000 Americans kicked the bucket of a medication overdose in 2016 - with opioids engaged with 66% of those passings. West Virginia has a portion of the most noteworthy opioid passing rates, and has seen a portion of the biggest increments as of late, the CDC noted. The state has the most noteworthy opioid overdose demise rate among 12-to 25-year-olds - at about 13 passings for each 100,000 individuals, as per Bates and his associates. The scourge is likewise expensive as far as human services, his investigation delineates. The 66 patients treated at the healing facility in 2015 alone aggregated about $4.6 million in doctor's facility charges. 

Be that as it may, the vast majority of the patients were either uninsured or had protection through government programs. So the healing facility was repaid for a small amount of the charges: Over the entire investigation time frame, the analysts say, the clinic charged more than $17 million, with just $3.8 million repaid. Episodically, Bates stated, the patients in this examination took after a run of the mill way. They began with mishandling medicine opioids, and when those medications wound up harder to get they proceeded onward to shoddy, promptly accessible illicit medications like heroin.

Thursday, 26 April 2018

In-Vitro Study on Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Composite of Graphene Oxide-Fe3O4/ Doxorubicin/TiO2 as a Targeted Drug-Delivery System

In our present work, we report a novel targeted drug-delivery system by using a simple and cost-effective procedure. Firstly, magnetic graphene oxide (GO-Fe3 O4 ) was prepared by chemical co-precipitation of Fe3 O4 magnetic nanoparticles on GO platelets and it was used as carrier for loading of doxorubicin (DOX), an anticancer drug. After loading DOX, in order to prevent the premature degradation of drug from GO-Fe3 O4 /DOX composite, it was coated with TiO2 , an inorganic porous coating, by using titanium (IV) butoxide, as precursor. In this way the GO-Fe3 O4 /DOX/TiO2 hybrid composite was synthesized. Then, the drug release of composites were monitored using UV-Vis absorbance technique and the results revealed that incorporation of porous TiO2 coating, enhanced the drug entrapment and decreased the amount of drug release, in which at pH 7.4, 56% and 15% of DOX was released from uncoated and coated composites, respectively. Moreover, after studying the release rate at pH 5.4, corresponds to the endosomal pH of cancer cell, the results showed that drug release is pH-sensitive, because the release rate of DOX in the pH 5.4 noticeably enhanced, compared to pH 7.4. Also, the MTT assays of hybrid composite confirmed its superior responsive to cancer cell lines.

Nowadays cancer is one of the main cause of death in around the world so that, in each year it is responsible for more 13% of death incidence. The World Health Organization in 2015 estimated that 84 million people were died by cancer in the last decade. In addition, GLOBOCAN 2012 reported 14.1 million new cancer per year in the world and estimated that by 2025 this number will raise up to 19.3 million. Currently, four conventional therapeutic strategies for cancer therapy are surgery, radiation, chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Among these, chemotherapy is more common used but it has many disadvantages like high toxicity and side effects of anticancer drugs on healthy cells.

Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the most commonly used and most effective therapeutic anticancer drugs that has a high potency against of various cancers. In the other hand, DOX like the other anticancer drugs has severe side effects such as gastrointestinal disturbances, nausea, vomiting, hair loss, bonemarrow aplasia and congestive heart failure. As regards to the importance of this matter, there is an urgent need to find the new strategies and materials for targeted drug delivery. In targeted drug delivery systems (TDDSs), suitable carriers can be utilized to protect anticancer drugs from premature degradation in body and also minimize their side effects on normal cells. In this regard, so far a vast range of materials have been used as carrier in TDDSs for cancer therapy, such as polymeric nanoparticlesand vesicles, inorganic materials.

Wednesday, 25 April 2018

Christmas 2016: Needs and the Realities


In this issue, I would like to mention about the main problems, needs and realities for healthcare professionals and especially for surgeons. Surgical residency is a difficult period for physicians and there are lots of problems during this period. Education and practice are the most important parts of surgical residency. When a physician starts the residency period, he/ she wants to be the most capable and active doctor of their branches. Enthusiasm lead physicians for working hard during this period butthey alsoface different type of problems. Several studies were reported in the literature that were indicating the main difficulties of education and social problems. Also lack of standardisation for education is the main problem in most of the European countries and this problem causes lack of confidence at the end of this education period. Surgical residency needs this standardisation so that surgeons would be more confident and capable after they become specialists.

After this education period, unfortunately the problems do not end. Doctors that have become specialists face different type of problem seven they are academic or non-academic. In almost all European countries, lack of academic positions make doctor loose their enthusiasm and interest in academic activities. For non-academics, it is nearly the same. When they start to work in any place of their countries, they face different type of problems. They cannot find enough devices or instruments to show their experience they have gained during their residency period. They do not get enough salaries for satisfaction. In some countries, patients have prejudice for doctors and they do not get satisfied with the health service in hospitals. After a time period, snowflakes are growing bigger and doctors are getting unhappy and reluctant.

In most of the countries, Ministries of Health do not take enough care of doctors and healthcare professionals. Bigger and comprehensive studies must be conducted in order to reveal the problems of these healthcare professionals so they will be happier and more successful doctors even they are residents or specialists.  

Tuesday, 24 April 2018

Fibronectin as an Immunohistochemical Marker for Postmortem Diagnosis of Myocardial Infarction

Acute myocardial infarction is sometimes a diagnostic dilemma in forensic pathology. Our aim is to evaluate the efficacy of fibronectin by immunohistochemical methods for diagnosis of early myocardial infarction in heart autopsies.Three groups of cases selected from autopsied hearts submitted to the pathology department of legal medicine organization of Iran during years 2004-2007 which included 15 cases of definite myocardial infarction (positive control group), 18 cases of noncardiac death (negative control group) and 26 cases suspicious of myocardial infarction based on clinical presentation just before death, presence of marked stenosis in at least one major coronary artery and exclusion of other causes of death (suspicious group). Fibronectin staining was performed on sections prepared from all of the cases. With our proposed cut off value for fibronectin staining the sensitivity and specificity of this marker are 93.3% and 94.4%, respectively. This marker could also support the occurrence of myocardial infarction in 42% of our suspicious cases.We conclude that in spite of usefulness of this marker for detection of myocardial infarction, the results should be interpreted with caution.

Diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction is a challenging issue in forensic pathology. In autopsied hearts macroscopic findings of myocardial infarction accompanied by microscopic confirmation are the gold standards for diagnosis. However, the development of these changes requires time and in real practice we rarely are fortunate enough to see the typical cases. In most instances nothing other than significant narrowing of coronary arteries is found in favor of myocardial infarction. Use of an ancillary method is highly advocated in these situations. Application of triphenyltetrazolium chloride to the fresh myocardium, electron microscopy and some immunohistochemical markers including myoglobin, fatty acid binding protein (FABP), troponin, desmin, fibronectin, fibrinogen, C5b-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are among many different diagnostic methods which have been used to address this diagnostic dilemma. The electron microscopy is not available in every pathology laboratory and requires comprehensive expertise. The triphenyltetrazolium chloride method requires fresh tissue and a great deal of suspicion at the time of autopsy. The immunohistochemical studies are, however, promising alternatives. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the diagnostic power of one of these immunohistochemical markers, the fibronectin, in suspicious cases of myocardial infarction.

Monday, 23 April 2018

AHA: Infections Could Trigger Stroke in Pregnant Women During Delivery


Pregnant ladies who have a contamination when they enter the doctor's facility for conveyance may be at higher danger of having a stroke amid their stay, as indicated by new research. The investigation, distributed Friday in the diary Stroke, endeavored to decide whether diseases add to stroke hazard amid peripartum, a term meaning in the blink of an eye previously or after labor. The examination, distributed Friday in the diary Stroke, attempted to decide whether contaminations add to stroke hazard amid peripartum, a term meaning without further ado previously or after labor. While maternal strokes are uncommon just around 30 of each 100,000 pregnancies they convey a high rate of casualty. "We needed to understand this since stroke is one of the significant reasons for maternal mortality in this nation," said the investigation's lead creator, Dr. Eliza Miller, a right hand educator of neurology at Columbia University Medical Center. "We needed to check whether contaminations could trigger a stroke in a lady who doesn't have a great deal of hazard factors, in the peripartum period." 

Scientists contemplated information from almost 2.8 million ladies admitted to clinics to conceive an offspring in California, New York and Florida from 2007 to 2011 including 455 patients who endured a stroke amid their remain. Analysts finished up the ladies were 1.74 times more inclined to endure a stroke if, when they were conceded, they had any sort of contamination, including urinary tract, gastrointestinal, respiratory, sexually transmitted, and sepsis, a dangerous disease in the circulation system. Mill operator said the ladies with urinary tract contaminations were 2.56 times as liable to endure a stroke amid their healing center stay, and those with the sepsis were 10.4 times as likely. "What's intriguing about this is the possibility that irritation in the body is some way or another setting off the outcomes," Miller said. "It bodes well that somebody who has sepsis and abnormal amounts of aggravation would have a much higher hazard." 

Dr. Cheryl Bushnell, a neurologist and executive of the Stroke Center at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, praised analysts for taking a gander at the association amongst aggravation and stroke among ladies conceiving an offspring. "The connection amongst diseases and stroke has turned out to be increasingly perceived, and this examination brings a more profound jump into irritation as the potential trigger," said Bushnell, who was not engaged with the investigation. "The approach is certainly novel investigating a particular populace." Both Bushnell and Miller called attention to the impediments of the examination, including an absence of a reasonable circumstances and end results relationship. "Observational investigations like these don't really demonstrate anything," Miller said. "However, it's useful for giving us signs to what's happening here and producing thoughts for future research."

Friday, 20 April 2018

Meditation: Different Approaches, Different Benefits


Profound breathing is an extraordinary pressure reliever, and the procedure called care reflection is a useful method to utilize breathing to get more in contact with your internal identity. Individuals who ponder say they feel more positive, and have more vitality and better fixation. There's in excess of one approach to tap contemplation's advantages - through varieties in procedure. An investigation distributed in the diary Mindfulness took a gander at what can be picked up from a couple of well known methodologies. 

Body filter. With body examine contemplation, you center around each body section, each one in turn, from your go to your feet. At the point when combined with centered breathing, contemplate members strongly lessened their number of negative considerations, and musings about the future and the past. Body output can enable you to feel more fixated and concentrated on the "now." Adoring consideration. This sort of contemplation encourages you develop positive affections for a friend or family member and in addition for yourself, your broadened group of friends, and past. This sort of reflection prompted the best lift in members' sentiments of warm, positive musings about others. It can be a decent approach in case you're confronting relational clashes. 

Watching thought. This kind of reflection shows you to perceive and characterize musings - as negative or positive, for example - without getting to be caught up in them. This training helped members turn out to be more mindful of the two musings and judgmental mentalities they held toward others. It additionally can stop rumination - the propensity for drearily going over upsetting circumstances in your psyche. While contemplation when all is said in done can enable you to feel more casual, distinctive writes offer extra advantages. Investigation to discover those that convey you nearer to your own change objectives.