Tuesday, 14 November 2017

Comparison between canine and molar swine tooth: tissue and stem cell view

Dental tissues are an abundant and rich source for easily and continually obtaining of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), which are able to differentiate in vitro into several types of tissues, such as fat, cartilage, bone, among others. In swine, canine teeth display continuous growth, suggesting it could represent a different niche of stem cells. In this study, we compare dental pulp mesenchymal stem cell (sDPSC) niches from canine and molar teeth in swine. Tooth tissues were obtained and characterized by histological, microscopy and cellular analyses. Tissues were submitted to immunohistochemistry analysis and showed expression for mesenchymal stem cells markers, such as CD73, CD90, CD105 and for pluripotent markers (Oct-4, Nanog and Sox-2). Molar and canine sDPSC were also cultured and characterized according to MSC properties, such as plastic adherence capability, fibroblast-like morphology and cell surface antigen profile. sDPSC displayed an exponential growth pattern by MTT assay and increased in-vitro differentiation potential for adipogenic and osteogenic lineages. Tumorigenic test indicated these cells were unable to generate tumor in nude mice. Thus far, stem cells derived from canine and molar teeth in swine did not expose significant differences related to cell or plasticity markers and they indicate to be safe for animal cellular therapy use since they are devoid of tumorigenic disposition.

Currently, stem cell research is extensively investigated, leading to an expansion in different applications and approaches in regenerative medicine. Most of the expertise in stem cells is applied to human stem cells. However, information on animal stem cells is of extreme relevance for veterinary research for use in cell therapy. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been greatly studied due to their regenerative potential, immunomodulatory signaling properties and cellular plasticity.

MSC-like populations derived from dental tissue are one of the 5 different types of stem cells found in specialized tissues already isolated and characterized, being the postnatal dental pulp stem cells’ (DPSC), exfoliated deciduous teeth stem cells (SHED) ,apical papilla (SCAP), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC) and dental follicle precursor cells’ (DFPC). Regenerative potential of dental pulp stem cells has been associated to dentin formation. Several studies in different niches of human dental pulp stem cells have reported relevant features like multipotentiality, clonogenicity, proliferation and cell therapy potential. In addition, therapeutic application of these cells was previously reported for dental tissue regeneration. 

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