Wednesday, 28 March 2018

Correlation Between Body Weight and Total Body Fat Composition in Adults in A Community in Ghana

Body composition is the amount of fat versus lean muscle tissue in the human body expressed as a percentage of a person’s total weight. Body weight alone is not a clear indicator of good health because it does not distinguish how much comes from fat and lean body mass. Thus body composition can be referred as the relative sizes of the four basic body compartments that make up the total body: lean body mass, fat, water and bone. The division of body composition into the fourcompartment model is based on metabolic activity, energy demand and comparative size. The body weight can be defined as the sum of bone, muscle, organs, body fluids and adipose tissue. Some or all of these components are subject to normal change as a reflection of growth, reproductive status, variation in exercise levels and effects of aging. It has been argued that water, which makes up 60% to 65% of the body weight is the most variable component, because ones state of hydration can induce fluctuations of several pounds. Muscle and skeletal mass adjust to some extent to support the changing burden of adipose tissue. However, true weight loss and excessive weight gain are associated primarily with a change in the size of the fat depots. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have shown that with advancing age people tend to become more obese -their amount of visceral fat tends to increase and their skeletal muscle mass declines. There seems to be some correlation between one body weight and body fat composition. 

This was a cross-sectional study and constituted 108 males (54%) and 92 females (46%) adults between 30 to 60 years. WHO Step-wise questionnaires were used to gather all data. This took into account the background of respondents which included occupation, ethnicity and income level. The lifestyle variables also included physical activities with corresponding duration for a particular activity. The subjects composed of males and females without any observable medical or surgical disorders in a suburb of Greater Accra Region in Ghana. Parameters indicating body weight and body fat composition and their correlation were determined. Hence, the main thrust of this research was to find out the strength of correlation between body weight and body fat composition in adults from the ages 30 to 60 years. The study was conducted in a densely populated suburb of Accra the capital city of Ghana. 

Weight was determined using standard weighing scale ensuring that subjects were in minimal clothing. The respondents were prompted to stand upright with their heads in an erect position and the barefoot on the foot pads of the scale. Readings were recorded to the nearest 1kg. Height measurement was taken using microtoise where the subject stood upright with their arms at their sides, feet together and with the maximum occipital prominence of the head, their shoulders, calves, heels and the buttocks touching the vertical wall. The head was steadied such that the Frankfort plane (the lower border of the orbit of the eye aligned horizontally with the external auditory meatus of the ear) was perpendicular to the vertical wall. The measurement was then taken from the crown of the head to the heel of the feet. Measurements were recorded to the nearest 0.1cm. Measurements of body weights and heights of respondents were used in calculating the BMI= kg / m2 .  

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